White yarrowMain Chemicals
hamazulene, sabene, mircene, germeneProduct Description
Healing of open wounds is only part of the benefits the herb brings.
Origin of the name
The Latin genus name Achilléa derives from the essential form of the female adjective in Ancient Greek χίλλειος (achílleios, Achilles). Thus was called in Greece this plant, which received its name in honor of Achilles (Achilleus, -eos – Achílles), son of Peleus and Thetis, a mythological hero of the Trojan War, a student of the centaur Chiron who used this plant as a means to treat wounds
The rootstock is thick, creeping, branched, with numerous thin, fibrous roots, underground sprouts.
Stems are scattered or lonely, erect or ascending, straight, less often curved, rounded, at a height of 20-80 (up to 120 cm), angularly cauline, bare or slightly hairy, branched only at the top.
The leaf is up to 15 cm long, 0.5-3 cm wide, with numerous oil glands on the underside. The leaves are alternate, general contour, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate two or three times, not defined at the base, thinly divided into segments, the end segments of the leaves are lanceolate-ovate, 0.3-2mm wide, quickly turn into spine. The lower leaves develop from sprouts of stems, stem leaves are small, hairy, sessile.
The flowers are small, white or pink, gathered in small inflorescences – flowers, which in turn form a joint disk inflorescence made of multiple flowers. In each basket, the end flowers are ovate, white, less often pink; the two-sex middle ones – tubular, yellow.
Widespread in Europe and Asia, also transported to other continents.
Yarrow grows in forest, steppe areas, in high mountain forest meadows, in meadow steppes, among shrubs, in rare forests, along forest edges, between roads, along gullies, in fallow lands, deserts, landfills, in villages, on the banks of reservoirs, on the outskirts of the fields.
The epigeous part during flowering contains flavones, the alkaloids achileine, coumarins, aconite acid, bitters and tannins, resins, organic acids, inulin, asparagine, mineral salts, ascorbic acid, phylloquinone, carotene, choline. The seeds contain up to 21% fatty oils.
The leaves and inflorescences contain essential oil (up to 0.85%) of yellowish-green or blue color, which consists of monoterpenoids (cineol (8-10%), camphor, tuyol), sesquiterpenoids – achilin, acetylblinolide, esthers, L-borneol, p-pinene, L-limonene, tuyol, and ronyl acetate. In addition, the essential oil contains salicylic, formic, acetic and isovaleric acid, vitamin K
Application in cooking
The smell of the plant is slightly aromatic, the taste is mild and pleasantly spicy. The leaves and buds are used as a spice, but not the stem. The dry crushed plant and essential oil are used to flavor alcohol and culinary products, as well as put in vegetable and potato soups, oily and vegetable dishes, goulash, when making of dark sauces and bitter infusions. Together with onions, white yarrow is used for cream cheese.
You should be careful when using yarrow as a spice. In large quantities it can cause poisoning, which occurs as dizziness and skin rashes.
White yarrow is a good honey plant.
Application in medicine
White yarrow is widely used in medicine in various countries as haemostatic (for nasal, uterine, pulmonary, haemorrhoidal and other haemorrhages), colitis, various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract, intestinal disorders. It also has anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties. It is used in the form of infusions, decoctions, extracts. It is included in the ingredients for gastric and appetite-suppressant mixtures. The preparations of yarrow with nettle are used as a haemostatic and calming agent for internal and external bleeding.
In folk medicine, white yarrow is used in cases of malaria, insomnia, gallstone disease, some liver diseases, for urinary incontinence, as a healing and haemorrhaging substance for severe menstruation.
In veterinary medicine, yarrow is used as anthelmintic medicine and in cases of gastrointestinal diseases in calves. Adding the plant to hay contributes to its digestibility. Plants grown on arable land have a less acidic and less "dense" taste in broth, therefore, it is better to collect the yarrow plant for therapeutic and prophylactic use in the open air: from forests, abandoned meadows, along dirt roads and plantations.
- In Scotland, the herb was worshiped as a witch plant used for divination.
- The ability to repel the evil spirits was attributed to the yarrow, so it was held in special places in the churches.
- Girls who believed in the miraculous power of the plant put the stems under their pillows to see their fiance in their sleep.
- During the Trojan War, Achilles healed the wounds of his soldiers using white yarrow.
- The Anglo-Saxons also treated wounds caused by iron weapons. It is obvious that this is the reason the white yarrow has another name – herbal militaris ("military grass").
- Examining the history of the medical application of the plant, it seems to be a miraculous cure for all diseases. At different times, everything was treated with it: from throat cancer and diabetes to the common cold. In particular, it was made into powder for sniffing that should cause nose bleeds – another element of the bloodletting technique that was so popular back then.
- In China it is mainly used for menstrual cycle disorders and bleeding. In Norway – a popular cure for rheumatism. Swedes add the oil to beer for a more exciting effect.
Application of white yarrow essential oil
Yarrow essential oil is obtained by steam distillation, for which the inflorescence or the entire epigeous part of the plant is used, the production is 0.1 – 0.4 percent.
Chamazulene is the most valuable component of the yarrow – from 6 to 25 percent. In addition to this substance, the oil also contains other substances – camphor, cineol, linalyl acetate, ronyl acetate.
The name of the plant is owed to the Greek hero Achilles, according to the myth about how white yarrow was first used. There are legends that during the Trojan War yarrow was used to treat wounds. This tradition is still used today – traditional medicine uses it as a means of wound healing.
- In the case of flu and cold, the use of yarrow oil is recommended as anti-inflammatory, or for rubbing on the chest.
- In acute respiratory diseases, the underground parts of the plant are used as a diuretic and even as a means of improving digestion, cholagogue bitterness. A beneficial effect on blood and blood circulation. Useful for menstrual disorders, for hypertension. It has antipyretic and diaphoretic action. It should be collected during flowering.
- White yarrow has an astringent, sweating, milk, anticonvulsive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, haemostatic and antiallergic action.
- Water decoction and infusions are recommended for stomach pain, uterine bleeding, headache, colds, asthma, stomach, nose, haemorrhoidal bleeding.
- It has a haemostatic property that can be compared with the action of calcium salt, it increases blood clotting. The effect is moderate, long-lasting, leaving no thrombosis behind.
- In the gastrointestinal tract it acts as an analgesic, vasodilating agent. It is used as a bitter to increase apetite.
- The main properties of white yarrow oil are healing of wounds, carminative, anti-inflammatory, toning, spasmolytic, they are critical for internal use.
- The composition of an appetizing collection of anti-hemorrhoid tea with laxative effect necessarily includes white yarrow.
- In combination with other herbs in the form of fresh juice or liquid extract it is used to treat gastritis with low acidity, duodenal or stomach ulcer.
- Indications for external and internal use of tincture, infusion, white yarrow essential oil – gastritis, loss of appetite, infection, flatulence, haemorrhoids, kidney and bladder weakness, neuritis, headache, wounds, amenorrhea, vaginitis, ulcers, burns, cellulite, eczema, sunburns, varicose veins.
- White yarrow essential oil will help in case of depression, skin irritation, irritation of the internal organs, scarce and irregular menstruation, and sometimes in the uterine prolapse. It has a calming effect, so it is recommended for irritability, in conditions of restraint and anger.
- Dermatologists use it for treatment of psoriasis, eczema and furuncles.
Application in the household
- Add 4 drops to the bath.
- Add 3 drops of essential oil to the aroma lamp.
- For massage purposes – add 4 drops of white yarrow oil to 10 grams of plant oil.
- Internally – up to two drops in one teaspoon of honey.